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After thorough research of the market, we have come up with top-class Industrial Waste Water Purification Plants. These plants are fabricated by experienced team members following instruction from by high-ranking officials. The plants are highly appreciated by our customers, as these are able to remove all the harmful materials from the water. Superior quality components and steel materials are provided by our vendors to fabricate these plants. Owing to its high capacity and longer service life, theIndustrial Waste Water Purification Plants is widely demanded by chemical industries.
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The natural water contains solid, liquid and gaseous impurities and therefore, this water cannot be used for the generation of steam in the boilers. The impurities present in the boilers. The impurities present in the water should removed before it's in steam generation. The necessity for reducing the corrosive nature & quantity of dissolved and suspended solids in feed water has become increasingly important with the advent of high pressure, critical & supercritical boilers.
IMPURITIES IN WATER
The impurities present in feed water are classified as give below
Undissolved and suspended solids materials
Turbidity and sediment
Turbidity in the water is suspended insoluble matter including coarse particles (mud, sediment sand etc.) that settle rapidly on standing. Amounts range from almost zero in most ground waters and 25,000 ppm in muddy and turbulent river water. The turbidity of feed water should not exceed 5 ppm. These materials filtration. Their presence is undesirable because heating or evaporation produces hard stony scale deposits on the heating surface & clog fluid system. Both are objectionable as they cause damage to the boiler system.
A standard amount of measurement of hardness is taken as being the amount of Calcium Carbonate (CaCo3) in the water and is referred to in part per million (ppm)or grains per gallon (grains/gallon x 17.1= ppm.)
Sodium and potassium Salts
These Dm Plant Manufacturers are extremely soluble in water and do not deposit unless highly concentrated. Their presence is trouble some as they are alkaline in nature and accelerate the corrosion.
Majority of the chlorides cause increased corrosive action of water.
Most common soluble Iron in water is Ferrous Bicarbonate. The water containing Ferrous Bicarbonate deposits becomes yellowish and reddish sediment of Ferric Hydroxide if exposed to air. Majority of ground surface water contains less than 5 ppm but even 0.3 ppm can create trouble in the feed water system by soft scale formation and accelerating the corrosion.
It also occurs in similar form as Iron & it is also equally troublesome.
Most natural water contains Silica ranging from 1 to 100 ppm. Its presence is highly objectionable as it forms very hard scale in Boilers its presence is reduced as low as 10-50 ppm.
Various growths occur in surface water (Lake & River). The Micro-Organisms include Diatoms, Molds, Bacterial Slimes, Algae, Manganese & Sulphate reducing Bacteria and many others. These can cause coating on Heat Exchanger and clog the flow passages and reduce the heat transfer rates.
Surface waters from swampy areas become highly coloured due to decaying vegetation. Colour of feed water is objectionable as it causes foaming in Boilers and mat interfere with treatment processes. It is generally removed by Chlorination or absorption by Activated Carbon.
Dissolved Salts and Minerals
Calcium and Magnesium Salts present in the water in the form of Carbonates, Bicarbonates, and Sulphates and Chlorides, the presence of these Salts is recognized by the hardness of the water (hardness of water is tested by soap test). The hardness of water is classified as temporary and permanent hardness. The temporary hardness is caused by the Bicarbonates of Calcium and Magnesium and can be removed by simple boiling. The boiling coverts the soluble Bicarbonates into less soluble Carbonates which can be removed by simple blow down method. The permanent hardness of the water is caused by the presence of Chlorides, Sulphates and Nitrates of Calcium an Magnesium and they cannot be on heating surfaces.
It presents in surface water in dissolved form with veriable percentage depending upon the water temperature and other solid contents in water.
Its presence is highly objectionable as it is corrosive to Iron, Zinc, Brass and other Metals. It causes corrosion and pitting of Waters Lines, Boiler Exchangers. Its effect is further accelerated at high temperatures.
The river water contains 50 ppm and well water contain 2 to 50 ppm of CO2. It also causes the corrosion of stream, water and condensate lines. It also helps to accelerate the corrosive action of Oxygen.
The gases are H2S, CH4, N2 and many others but their percentage are negligible, therefore, their effects are not discussed here.
Free Mineral Acid
Usually present as sulphuric or Hydrochloric Acid and causes corrosion. The presence is reduced by neutralization with Alkalies.
Generally, the Lubricating Oil is carried with steam into the condenser and through the feed system to the Boiler. It causes sludge, scale and foaming in Boilers. It is generally removed by strainers an baffle separators.
The effects of all the impurities present in the water are the scale formation on the different part of the Boiler system corrosion. The scale formation reduces the heat transfer rates and clog the flow passage and endanger the life of the equipment's by increasing the temperature above safe limit. The corrosion phenomenon reduces the life of the plant rapidly, therefore, it is absolutely necessary to reduces the impurities below a safe limit for the proper working of the power plant.
BASIC WATER CHEMISTRY
RAW WATER & IMPURITIES
Water as it occurs in nature "pure'", and whatever be the source, always contains impurities either in solution or in suspension. The determination of these impurities makes analysis of water necessary and removal and control of these impurities make water treatment essential.
The various sources of water can be broadly classified as
Of the above, logically rain water is the purest but even this collects and dissolves atmospheric gases. Further, once in contact with the earth's crust, the rain water will gradually dissolve various materials.
The major impurities of water can be classified in three main groups
These are mainly turbidity, salt, mud, dirt and other suspended matter; micro-organisms, bacteria and other organic matter, oil and corrosion products. It goes without saying that drinking water and not industrial water supplies should be clear and organic -free.
Ionic & Dissolved Impurities
Any salt which dissolved in water solids is not positively charged cations and negatively charged anions and since these permit the water to conduct electricity, these salts are called electrolytes.
Some of the most common Cations in water are: Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium and Iron rarely Ammonium Magnesia. These cations are associated with Anions like bicarbonates, carbonates, Hydroxides (The sum of which is termed as Alkalinity), sulphates and chlorides presence of Nitrates and Phosphates is normally not very common. In the water treatment field, the preferred method of expression of these dissolved impurities is in terms of equivalent calcium carbonate is a good "as CaCO3". This is because calcium carbonate is a good common denominator as it a molecular weight of 100, which facilitates calculations.
Moreover, in this form of analysis, the sum of cations or total cation always equals the total Anions. Quantitatively, these are expressed in parts per million or milligrams/litters. One part per million equals one thousand of one percent (0.0001%). One part per million means one part in a million parts, one 1b. in a million 1 bs. of water.
Of all the dissolved impurities, hardness is perhaps the most troublesome. Hardness as due to compounds of calcium and magnesium. One heating water containing these salts, Carbon Dioxide is released from solution and the Bicarbonates are converted into carbonates which are insoluble and from scales and deposits. Other salts of Calcium & Magnesium like Sulphates and Chlorides have lower solubility than Sodium salts Bicarbonates or temporary hardness and Chlorides, Sulphates, Nitrates etc., of calcium and Magnesium are known as neutral or permanent hardness.
Sodium salt are highly solubles but can be corrosive if present in large quantities Sodium Chlorides or Sodium Bicarbonate.
Dissolved Silica is another troublesome impurity, especially in waters fed to boilers if very high temperature and pressures. Even in lower pressure boiler, it count form a very hard type of scale by acting as binding agent.
Of the atmospheric gaseous found in naturally occurring waters, only two, carbon and Oxygen are the main causes of may corrosion problems.
Removal of Impurities
Our major concern is industrial water treatment, whereby water used directly or indirectly in an industrial process is made suitable for that particular application. The use of water in boilers for steam generation is an various industrial use, depending on the process, varying degrees of purity of treated water are required. For example, a textile processing unit will required soft and clear water for process use; a chemical plant or electronic components manufacturing unit will require ultra-pure water containing total dissolved impurities not exceeding 0.5 mg/litres of less.
DESCRIPTION OF TREATMENT REQUIRED FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT
Raw Water Storage & Supply
The raw water having silt and suspended solids is supplied by client at inlet of water treatment plant.
The raw water having silt and suspended solids is passed through 1000 micron rating micron filter and then through 500 micron rating filter. The particle size above 500 microns retained in the pre-filters. These filters are fabricated from stainless steel 304 sheets with stainless steel strainers, quick opening type, complete with inlet/outlet/drain valves and pressure gauge assembly.
The raw water after pre-filtration will be taken to a tank where air will be supplied through twin lobe type air blowers for aeration of water to remove carbon dioxide and organics. The air will be supplied through piping with membrane type air diffusers to ensure proper air mixing with water.
Coagulation and Settling Process
The raw water after pre-aeration will be taken to a flocculation tank where chemicals like alum or poly aluminum chloride will be doze at desired calculated level (doze of chemicals is calculated on the basis of inlet turbidity load and through jar test apparatus. The chemicals once mixed with water coagulate the turbidity and make big flocs which are settle able. The flocculated impurities in the water is taken to settling tank (tube settler design) where settle able solids in form of sludge settle down at bottom and clear water containing turbidity not more than 50 NTU over flow to collection tank.
Pressure Sand Filter
The clarified water stored in collection tank than pumped and supplied to pressure sand filter for removal of remaining suspended solids. The pressure sand filter has been designed with multi-grade media consisting of gravel bed, coarse & fine silica sand and anthracite media.
The backwash of MGF will be done from the clear water supply for 10 minutes or when the pressure difference between inlet & outlet pressure gauges come down to less than 2 psig.
Activated Carbon Filter
The filtered water after pressure sand filter will than passed through activated carbon filter for remaining organics matters making water odour less. The activated carbon filter has been designed with dual media consisting of gravel bed, coarse & granular activated carbon media.
The backwash of ACF will be done from the filtered water supply for 10 minutes.
Chlorine Dosing System
Chlorine Dosing System is provided for disinfection purpose and to make water free from harmful bacteria. The NaOCl will be dosed after activated carbon filter through metering type dosing pump. Solution tank of suitable capacity will be provided along with dozing pump to store chlorine solution.
pH Correction System
The treated water after chlorination may require pH correction for which separate dozing system is given along with on-line pH meter. The NaOH will be dosed after activated carbon filter through metering type dosing pump. Solution tank of suitable capacity will be provided along with dozing pump to store caustic solution.